Struggling To Become a CCNA ? Pass Now
No need to worry, I'm here to guide you. I have gained my CCNA after going through a well organised study technique. I was able to score 986/1000 in my first attempt for which I studied hard for a month not more than that. I want you to go through the simple study plan which I'm suggesting for getting success in CCNA exam. The technique which I'm going to explain is also useful for pursuing your CCNP and higher certificatons. Post your queries and request and check my post regularly on this blog for your success.

I completed my CCNA, CCNP & CCIP (BGP+MPLS) and working towards CCIE.
Trust me, I will show you the right path. I started this blog in the year 2007, I could not post regularly since I was busy with my project. Now I have decided to help young people who are eager to succeed. I would be really happy to help anyone who is really interested in succeeding in career.

Friday, September 18, 2009

Telecommuter site considerations

•Over the past decade the improvement of WAN technologies, notably DSL and cable modems, has allowed many employees to do their jobs remotely.
•As a result, the number of telecommuters and small offices has increased.
•As with the corporate and branch office solutions, the telecommuter site WAN solution should be selected by weighing cost and bandwidth requirements.

Branch office considerations

•A branch office, commonly referred to as a remote site, typically maintains at least one WAN connection to the central site and may have several links to other remote sites.
•Generally, branch office networks support fewer users than the central site and therefore require less bandwidth.
•Because remote site traffic can be sporadic or bursty, it will be important to determine whether it is more cost-effective to offer a permanent or dialup solution

Central site considerations

•The central site is the focal point of a company network.
•Typically, all remote sites and users must connect to the central site to access information, either intermittently or continuously.
•Because many users access this site in a variety of ways, a router at a central site should have a modular design so that interface modules can be added or swapped as needed.

Wednesday, September 9, 2009

CSU/DSU - Connectivity in Detail

Point-to-Point Serial Links

In the network at your job, most likely the serial interfaces on your

Cisco routers are not connected to each other directly. They connect

to a CSU/DSU, which supplies a clock rate to the router, allowing the

line protocol to stay up.

In the world of Cisco exams, and in your practice lab, there are

generally routers that have directly connected serial interfaces. These

routers are connected to each other by a DCE/DTE cable; the DCE end

of the cable will connect to the router that is acting as the CSU.

What’s The Line Protocol?

You’ll see a lot of discussion in CCNA and CCNP texts, but rarely does

anyone actually say what the line protocol is. The Cisco IOS Command

Reference defines the line protocol as "indicating whether the software

processes that handle the line protocol consider the line usable (that

is, keepalives are successful) or whether it has been taken down by an


Translation: When the line protocol is down, there’s a problem with

the keepalives or the encapsulation type.

To tell the DTE end from the DCE end before connecting it, look for a

small label wrapped around one or both of the cable ends. That label

will indicate whether that is the DCE or DTE end. If there is no label,

the connector itself may have DTE or DCE imprinted on it.

After connecting the cable to the respective routers, use show

controller to ensure the router sees the cable as a DCE or DTE.

R1#show controller serial 1

HD unit 1, idb = 0x107114, driver structure at 0x10C590

buffer size 1524 HD unit 1, V.35 DTE cable

R3#show controller serial 1

HD unit 1, idb = 0xC7D1C, driver structure at 0xCCAA0

buffer size 1524 HD unit 1, V.35 DCE cable

The routers will not be able to communicate at this point, however.

Remember that when a serial interface connects to a CSU/DSU, the

interface receives clocking from that device. There is no CSU/DSU

involved when two serial interfaces are directly connected; therefore,

one of the devices must supply a clock rate to the other. The DCE

interface must supply the clock rate to the DTE.

R3(config)#int serial 1

R3(config-if)#clockrate 56000


%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial1, changed state to up


Type escape sequence to abort.

Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to, timeout is 2 seconds:


In The REAL World…

For exam purposes, you need to memorize the fact that the DCE is the

interface that needs to have the clock rate configured. When you’re at

your practice rack, you’ll find out that you can’t put the clockrate on

the DTE, because the router won’t let you!

Monday, September 7, 2009

CSU/DSU - Channel service unit / Data Service Unit

Try to Learn about this device, This is not commonly shown in CCNA Labs.

SU provides signal timing for communication and is used for interfacing with the digital transmission facility.
Essentially, the CSU/DSU is used by a router to connect to a digital line in much the same way that a PC uses a modem to connect to an analog line.
A CSU/DSU for T1 will typically provide:
Framing: ESF, D4(SF)
Line Coding: AMI, B8ZS
Cabling to Router: V.35, RS-232
(more on these later)
The CSU/DSU may also be built into the router. Like the card shown below.

Master CCNA Commands for all Topics

Cisco Commands are very important to implement and trouble shoot a network. Master CCNA Commands for all the below given Topics.

Download the Command guide here:

Introduction xxi
Part I TCP/IP Version 4
Chapter 1 How to Subnet
Chapter 2 VLSM
Chapter 3 Route Summarization
Part II Introduction to Cisco Devices
Chapter 4 Cables and Connections
Chapter 5 The Command-Line Interface
Part III Configuring a Router
Chapter 6 Configuring a Single Cisco Router
Part IV Routing
Chapter 7 Static Routing
Chapter 8 RIP 75
Chapter 9 EIGRP 81
Chapter 10 Single Area OSPF
Part V Switching 103
Chapter 11 Configuring a Switch
Chapter 12 VLANs 117


Chapter 13 VLAN Trunking Protocol and Inter-VLAN Routing
Chapter 14 STP and EtherChannel
Part VI Extending the LAN
Chapter 15 Implementing a Wireless LAN
Part VII Network Administration and Troubleshooting
Chapter 16 Backing Up and Restoring Cisco IOS Software and


Chapter 17 Password-Recovery Procedures and the Configuration
Register 193
Chapter 18 Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)
Chapter 19 Telnet and SSH
Chapter 20 The ping and traceroute Commands
Chapter 21 SNMP and Syslog
Chapter 22 Basic Troubleshooting
Part VIII Managing IP Services
Chapter 23 Network Address Translation
Chapter 24 DHCP
Chapter 25 IPv6
Part IX WANs 249
Chapter 26 HDLC and PPP
Chapter 27 Frame Relay
Part X Network Security
Chapter 28 IP Access Control List Security
Chapter 29 Security Device Manager

Download the Command guide here:

CCNA® Routing & Switching Certification - SYLLABUS

CCNA® Routing & Switching Certification

1.The CCNA certification validates the ability to install, configure, operate, and troubleshoot medium-size routed and switched networks.

2.CCNA certified professionals have the knowledge and skills to make connections to remote sites via a WAN, mitigate basic security threats, and understand the requirements for wireless network access.

3.CCNA training covers (but is not limited to) the use of these protocols: IP, Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP), Serial Line Interface Protocol Frame Relay, Routing Information Protocol Version 2 (RIPv2), VLANs, Ethernet, and access control lists (ACLs).

You can take CCNA Exam As combined (ICND1+ICND2)

Like: 640-802 CCNA Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 1 (ICND1) +

Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 2 (ICND2)

OR Separately

Like: 640-822 ICND1 Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 1 (ICND1)

640-816 ICND2 Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 2 (ICND2)

640-822 ICND1 -CCENT

Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 1
Exam Number: 640-822 ICND1
Associated Certifications: CCENT and CCNA
Duration: 90 minutes (40-50 questions)
Available Languages: English, Japanese, Chinese, Spanish, Russian, Korean, French, Portuguese

640-822 ICND1 Exam Topics

Exam Description-ICND1
The 640-822 Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 1 (ICND1) is the exam associated with the Cisco Certified Entry Network Technician certification and a tangible first step in achieving the Cisco Certified Network Associate certification. Candidates can prepare for this exam by taking the Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 1 (ICND1) v1.0 course. This exam tests a candidate's knowledge and skills required to successfully install, operate, and troubleshoot a small branch office network. The exam includes topics on networking fundamentals; connecting to a WAN; basic security and wireless concepts; routing and switching fundamentals; the TCP/IP and OSI models; IP addressing; WAN technologies; operating and configuring IOS devices; configuring RIPv2, static and default routing; implementing NAT and DHCP; and configuring simple networks.

640-816 ICND2

Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices - Part 2
Exam Number: 640-816 ICND2
Associated Certifications: CCNA
Duration: 75 minutes (40-50 questions)
Available Languages: English, Japanese, Chinese, Spanish, Russian, Korean, French, Portuguese

Exam Description -ICND2

The 640-816 Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 2 (ICND2) is the exam associated with the Cisco Certified Network Associate certification. Candidates can prepare for this exam by taking the Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 2 (ICND2) v1.0 course. This exam tests a candidate's knowledge and skills required to successfully install, operate, and troubleshoot a small to medium size enterprise branch network. The exam covers topics on VLSM and IPv6 addressing; extending switched networks with VLANs; configuring, verifying and troubleshooting VLANs; the VTP, RSTP, OSPF and EIGRP protocols; determining IP routes; managing IP traffic with access lists; NAT and DHCP; establishing point-to- point connections; and establishing Frame Relay connections.

I Suggest you take CCNA as a whole i.e ICND1+ICND2, This would save time and money. While preparing for the exam you can start from CCENT for better understanding. Success is always in mastering Fundamentals. Try to master trouble shooting skills because most of the questions in CCNA can be tackled if you are proficient in this domain. Moreover, this skill will help you in obtaining your next level cisco certifications with ease and to land in your desired Job.


Fayaz C.B

Sunday, September 6, 2009

Why You Need To Practice On Virtual Labs ?

The CCNA virtual lab has become a good alternative to building a real lab using used or new Cisco equipment. The traditional problem with using physical Cisco equipment is that it is very expensive and still might not have all the features you need to pass the CCNA exam. I highly recommend using a simulation for this reason. Here are 3 reasons why you need a Cisco router simulator to help you prepare for the CCNA as well as your career beyond the CCNA:

Simulation Questions In The CCNA Test -
Cisco has put many simulation-type questions into the CCNA in order to test the candidate's ability to troubleshoot and configure network devices in a real life situation. The weight of these questions with regards to the final CCNA score is generally agreed to be very high, although only Cisco knows for sure. It is thus crucial to get proper practice for this section of the already difficult CCNA. One of the best ways to get your hands-on practice without incurring huge costs is to use a CCNA virtual lab.

Memory Retention
- Actually going and doing some actual configuration of the network devices will allow you to remember and understand the difficult CCNA concepts better. Networking is most definitely a practical subject, and although reading the books and understanding the theories from the books is definitely important, actually doing the configuration and troubleshooting will cement that theoretical knowledge in your mind. A Cisco router simulator is an excellent way to get this crucial practice.

Important For Employers -
Beyond the CCNA, it is quite common these days to have a technical interview for any new networking job. Employers need to be certain that candidates have the technical skills necessary to do the job well. Even if you are technically qualified and have the necessary certifications, very often you will be asked to demonstrate your technical skills in a technical style interview. These kind of questions will usually revolve around troubleshooting skills which are highly valued by many employers these days. A CCNA virtual lab is the perfect way to get these highly valuable troubleshooting skills without spending too much.

Saturday, September 5, 2009

CCNA Important Questions

Prepare for your CCNA exam from this CCNA question pdf. and
Score high mark in your CCNA Test.

Download here :

You can request for CCNA test Simulator. It will be very comprehensive and interactive.

CCNA Voice Notes

Download this CCNA Voice study guide which will help you in passing the exam.

Friday, September 4, 2009

How To Become A True CCNA And To Get A CCNA job

The CCNA is an exciting beginning to your Cisco career, but just having the certification simply isn't enough. A recruiter or interviewer isn't going to be impressed just with the cert; you've got to have some real-world knowledge to back it up.

I've been down that road myself, and sat on both sides of the CCNA job interview table. With that in mind, I'd like to offer to you some tips on becoming a truly valuable and employable CCNA.

Get some hands-on experience. I know the trap well; you can't get experience until you get a CCNA, and you can't get a CCNA without real experience. Well, actually, you can, but do you want to? Working on simulators is fine to a certain extent, but don't make the classic mistake of depending on them. I've seen plenty of CCNAs who were put in front of a set of routers and really didn't know what to do or how to put together a simple configuration, and had NO idea how to begin troubleshooting.

There are CCNA classes that offer you the chance to work with industry experts on real Cisco equipment. Beyond that, you can put together your own CCNA rack for less than $1000 by buying used routers. Some people think that's a lot of money, but this is the foundation of your career. Treat it that way. The work you do now is the most important work you'll ever do. Do it on real Cisco equipment. The skills I learned as a CCNA helped me all the way up to the CCIE.

Besides, after you get your CCNA (and after that, hopefully you'll choose to pursue the CCNP), you can always get some of your money back by selling the equipment. The hands-on experience you gain this way is invaluable.

Know binary math. Do NOT go the easy route of memorizing a subnet mask chart for the CCNA exam. I know some people brag about being able to pass the CCNA exam without really understanding binary math. I've seen those people on the other side of the interview table, and they're not laughing when I ask them to do a subnetting question. They're not laughing when they can't explain or create a VLSM scheme. That chart does nothing to help you understand what's going on.

If you can add and know the difference between a one and a zero, you can do binary math. Don't let the name intimidate you. Become a REAL CCNA -- learn binary math !

Run "show" and "debug" commands. No commands help you truly understand how things work in a Cisco network than show and debug commands. As you progress through the Cisco certification ranks, you'll be glad you started using these at the CCNA level.

Do you need to know these commands for the exam? Probably not. Do you need them to be successul in the real world? Absolutely.

The Cisco certification track has been great to me, and it can boost your career as well, whether you stop at the CCNA, CCNP, or go all the way to the CCIE. It's the skills you develop today that will truly make you a networking engineer. Don't take shortcuts or get the attitude of "just passing the exam".

It's what you achieve after the exam that counts, and it's the work you put in before passing the exam that makes those achievements possible.

Other IT Certifications -(MCSE)

IT Certification Tips

Getting Certification is a cherished vision for every person, who desires to be recognized as a certified professional in the IT industry. Industry experts advocate going for more and more certifications these days. More the number of certifications you have, the more value you add to your organization!
Certification, undoubtedly, is one of the coveted affixes and a fundamental official recognition in the portfolio of a IT professional. It is believed that qualifying any certification exam acts as a great morale booster. This article highlights the tips to keep in mind while preparing and attempting any Certification exam.

Follow These Tips

Read Lot of Books on Certification: Inculcate the habit to read a lot on certifications. Usually human brain tends to have extended recall of what has been read a few times.

Make Notes: Ensure that you take notes of what you learn either while attending classroom sessions or reading study material. Latest Industry Information: Stay up to date with the technologies and latest happenings in the industry.

Don't Act in Haste: Don't scuttle while attempting the test. Always read the question carefully before you look out for choices in hand.

Devote an ample amount of time: Devote some time to ponder and think of the possibly correct answer before selecting one from the given choices. Be Cautious! Ensure that you interpret all the options correctly before selecting from available choices.

Follow Your Instincts: If you get confused and can't think of the answer with self-reliance, follow your instincts.

Use Common Sense: Use your common sense while answering the questions. It will be the best deal.

Take Your Own Time: Make the most of the time period for answering the test questions. Don't' haste.

Stay Informed: Ensure that you refer to the most up-to-date and modernized versions of study materials for certification exam preparation.
Just remember these tips and you will triumph the computer Certification

Refer my blog for MCSE certification materials.

Thursday, September 3, 2009

Router Memory Components

Learn about Router Memory Components


Download this Router Memory ppt from here.

Five Things To Do DURING Your CCNA Exam

There are plenty of articles out there about how to prepare for the CCNA exam. However, there are also things you can do to increase your chances of success on exam day during the most important part of the entire process -- the time that you're actually taking the test.

I've taken many a certification exam over the years, and helped many others prep for theirs. Here are the five things you must do on exam day to maximize your efforts.

1. Show up on time.
Yeah, I know everyone says that. The testing center wants you there 30 minutes early. So why do so many candidates show up late, or in a rush? If you have a morning exam appointment, take the traffic into account. If it's a part of town you don't normally drive in during rush hour, you might be surprised at how much traffic you have to go through. Plan ahead.

2. Use paper, not the pad. Some testing centers have gotten into the habit of handing exam candidates a board that allegedly wipes clean, along with a marker that may or not be fine-pointed. You do NOT want to be writing out charts for binary math questions, or coming up with quick network diagrams, with a dull magic marker. It's also my experience that these boards do not wipe clean well at all, but they smear quite badly.

Ask the testing center employee to give you paper and a pen instead. I haven't had one refuse me yet. Remember, you're the customer. It's your $100 - $300, depending on the exam.

3. Use the headphones. Most candidates in the room with you understand that they should be quiet. Sadly, not all of them do. Smacking gum, mumbling to themselves (loud enough for you to hear, though), and other little noises can really get on your nerves in what is already a pressure situation. In one particular testing center I use, the door to the testing room has one setting: "Slam".

Luckily, that center also has a headset hanging at every testing station. Call ahead to see if yours does. Some centers have them but don't leave them at the testing stations. Wearing headphones during the exam is a great way to increase your powers of concentration. They allow you to block out all noise and annoyances, and do what you came to do -- pass the exam.

4. Prepare for the "WHAT??" question. No matter how well-prepared you are, there's going to be one question on any Cisco exam that just stuns you. It might be off-topic, in your opinion; it may be a question that would take 20 of your remaining 25 questions to answer; it might be a question that you don't even know how to begin answering. I have talked with CCNA candidates who got to such a question and were obviously so thrown off that they didn't do well on any of the remaining questions, either.

There is only one thing to do in this situation: shrug it off. Compare yourself to a major-league pitcher. If he gives up a home run, he can't dwell on it; he's got to face another batter. Cornerbacks in football face the same problem; if they give up a long TD pass, they can't spend the next 20 minutes thinking about it. They have to shrug it off and be ready for the next play.

Don't worry about getting a perfect score on the exam. Your concern is passing. If you get a question that seems ridiculous, unsolvable, or out of place, forget about it. It's done. Move on to the next question and nail it.

5. Finish with a flourish. Ten questions from the end of your exam, take a 15-to-30 second break. You can't walk around the testing room, but you can stand and stretch. By this point in the exam, candidates tend to be a little mentally tired. Maybe you're still thinking about the "WHAT??" question. Don't worry about the questions you've already answered -- they're done. Take a deep breath, remember why you're there -- to pass this exam -- and sit back down and nail the last ten questions to the wall.

Before you know it, your passing score appears on the screen!

Now on to the CCNP! Keep studying!


Chris Bryant

Wednesday, September 2, 2009

Different Types of Router Memory

An important part of your Cisco CCENT and CCNA certification studies is learning the differences between RAM, ROM, NVRAM, and Flash memory. You better know the differences when it comes to working in real-life networks as well, because vital Cisco files are found in these memory types - and since some of these files are lost on a router reload and some are not, we better know which is which!

The memory types and functions discussed in this section are the same for routers and switches, but to keep from saying "routers and switches" 500 times, I'll just say "routers". :)
Configuring the routers is a lot of fun, but we've got to know what's going on inside the router, too! Cisco routers have four different kinds of memory, and while some of the names are similar, their purpose is totally different.

The contents of some of these memory types is kept when the router is reloaded, and others are lost on a reload. We better know which is which!

It's a fair bet that these topics will come up on your CCENT and CCNA exams, and this is also information you've got to know to be a real network admin. Let's examine these four memory types closely and see what each one does!

ROM: Read-Only Memory. ROM stores the router's bootstrap startup program, operating system software, and power-on diagnostic test programs (POST).

Flash Memory: Generally referred to simply as "flash", the IOS images are held here. Flash is erasable and reprogrammable ROM. Flash memory content is retained by the router on reload.

RAM: Random-Access Memory. Stores operational information such as routing tables and the running configuration file. RAM contents are lost when the router is powered down or reloaded. By default, routers look here first for an Internetwork Operating System (IOS) file during boot.

NVRAM: Non-volatile RAM. NVRAM holds the router's startup configuration file. NVRAM contents are not lost when the router is powered down or reloaded.

Some important comparisons:
RAM contents are lost on reload, where NVRAM and Flash contents are not. NVRAM holds the startup configuration file, where RAM holds the running configuration file. Let's take a look at the boot process of a Cisco router, and then talk about the dreaded Setup Mode!
The Router Boot Process
When a Cisco router powers up, it first runs a series of POSTs (Power-On Self Test). A POST is a series of diagnostic tests designed to verify the basic operation of the network interfaces, memory, and the CPU.
Depending on the model or router of switch you're using, you can actually see some of these tests being passed. Here, I've reloaded a Cisco 2950 switch, and you can see some of the POSTs being run and passed at the very beginning of the bootup process.
Initializing flashfs...
flashfs[1]: 79 files, 3 directories
flashfs[1]: 0 orphaned files, 0 orphaned directori
flashfs[1]: Total bytes: 7741440
flashfs[1]: Bytes used: 5980672
flashfs[1]: Bytes available: 1760768
flashfs[1]: flashfs fsck took 7 seconds.
flashfs[1]: Initialization complete.
Done initializing flashfs.
POST: System Board Test : Passed
POST: Ethernet Controller Test : Passed
ASIC Initialization Passed
POSTs are particularly effective at detecting major problems early in the boot process, such as a broken fan. If the POST detects such a problem (usually called an "environmental factor") that would cause the router or switch to overheat after booting, the POST will fail, give you a clear message as to why the POST failed, and will then stop the boot process.
But let's speak positively here!
After the router passes the POST, it looks for a source from which to load a valid Internetwork Operating System (IOS). The router has three sources from which it can load an IOS image, and it's a good idea to know these sources and the order in which the router will look in each for the IOS image:
1. Flash memory (the default).
2. A TFTP server. (Trivial File Transfer Protocol)
3. Read-Only Memory (ROM)
To change that order, a change must be made to the configuration register, and we'll talk about that later in the course. It's similar to the Microsoft Registry in that you should never change this value unless you are sure of the result.
Once the IOS is found, the router looks for a valid startup configuration file. By default, the router will look for the startup configuration file in Non-volatile RAM (NVRAM).
If no valid startup configuration file is found, the router enters setup mode, where the router runs the system configuration dialogue, a series of questions involving basic router setup. We'll take a look at Setup Mode in the next installment of my exclusive 640-802 CCNA and CCENT certification exam tutorial series!


Chris Bryant

Basic Router Troubleshooting

This CCNA ppt includes only Router Troubleshooting part. This will be very helpful for better understanding.

Download here :

Cisco Router Simulator - A Checklist For Choosing the Right Simulator For Your CCNA

A Cisco router simulator is an important tool for any CCNA candidate to prepare for the CCNA. This is because having hands-on knowledge is an important part of passing the CCNA these days. Skills such as configuration and troubleshooting are extremely prized amongst prospective employers. Thus, you definitely need to get a Cisco router simulator if you want to have any hope of passing the CCNA and getting that first network engineer job. Here is a short checklist of items to look out for when buying a Cisco router simulator:

1. What is included? - You need to check what is included in the simulator package. Is it a pure simulator with no included labs and guidance? Most Cisco router simulator packages have guided lab exercises which you can complete. These exercises cover the whole breadth of the CCNA exam and you can be more confident of passing the exam if you are able to do them well. If the package does not come with included lab exercises you might be forced to purchase them elsewhere which would be an additional cost.

2. Instructor -
If the lab exercises are included (they should be included for most quality CCNA simulators), do check to see who is the instructor who wrote the lab. This is no guarantee of quality but a highly experienced trainer who has worked in the networking industry for many years with true practical experience definitely will be able to write better labs. These labs should be as close to a real networking issue and situation so that you can get the necessary hands-on knowledge.

3. Cost -
A good Cisco router simulator should not be too expensive. A quality product can be purchased for less than $150, with free shipping from the major online retailers. This cost is definitely much lower than buying used Cisco devices from sites like eBay, so using a Cisco router simulator is definitely a very cost-effective way to study for your CCNA.

Francis W Teo

Tuesday, September 1, 2009

How to Start For CCNA

If you are intending to study for the CCNA exam on your own by using CCNA books, rather than taking a course at a school or other Cisco authorized training partner, you might be confused by the vast amount of CCNA preparation material out there. Here are 3 types of books you will definitely need in order to do well for the difficult Cisco CCNA networking certification exam:

1. CCNA books (self study) - These are the books which provide the main learning and technical material for the CCNA exam. The good books are closely aligned with the CCNA syllabus and updated regularly to keep up with the changes that Cisco makes almost yearly to the CCNA exam. They are usually of a high quality and are written by highly qualified and experienced network engineers. These authors usually have a high-level Cisco technical qualification such as the CCIE (Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert), which is the highest level of technical certification given to Cisco network professionals. You should be looking out for such qualities when choosing a good CCNA preparation book.

2. CCNA Exam cram books
- These are the books you should be looking at once you are finished with the self-study books. At this point, you should be familiar with the technical written material and understand all the necessary concepts required to pass the CCNA exam. These exam cram books serve as a last minute revision so you can remember the essential concepts required to pass the CCNA. Unfortunately, many of the concepts in the exam are still quite recall-intensive, so using exam cram books to boost your ability to recall the facts is a very good idea.

3.CCNA Practice tests -
Once you have all the necessary knowledge and facts, as well as a good understanding of the material, you should try out practice tests to ensure that you are able to answer test questions in a simulated test environment. Traditionally, these tests come in a book form where you just complete the questions in a book. These days, there are several computerized test programs where will simulate a real test. These ensure that you have a good feel for the exam before going for the real thing.


CCNA for Beginners

CCNA Beginners go through this video and make networking fundamentals strong.

CCNA - Command "Auto secure"

In today's article, I'm going to quickly inform you about the Privileged EXEC command named "auto secure".

Network administrators (like you) use the "auto secure" command to secure the management and forwarding planes of a router.

Another way of saying it is, CCNAs use this command to secure a router by disabling common IP services which can be exploited by attackers to initiate network attacks. When the command is typed on a router, it takes the user (ccna) through a command line-interface (CLI) semi-interactive session (which is also known as the AutoSecure dialogue).

Below is the command's syntax:

auto secure [management | forwarding] [no-interact | full] [ntp | login | ssh | firewall | tcp-intercept]

As you can see, the command can use several "optional" keywords:

management - This (optional) keyword is used to only secure the management plane of a router.

forwarding - This (optional) keyword is used to only secure the forwarding plane of a router.

no-interact - A CCNA uses this (optional) keyword if he or she doesn't want to be prompted for any interactive configurations. (If this optional keyword is not used, the user will be shown the noninteractive configuration and the interactive configurations)

full - This (optional) keyword is used to indicate that the user (ccna) wants to be prompted for all interactive questions. (If this optional keyword is not used, the router will behave this way by default)

ntp - This optional keyword is used to specify the configuration of the Network Time Protocol (NTP) feature in the AutoSecure command line-interface (CLI).

login - This (optional) keyword is used to specify the configuration of the Login feature in the AutoSecure CLI.

ssh - This (optional) keyword is used to specify the configuration of the Secure Shell (SSH) feature in the AutoSecure CLI.

firewall - This (optional) keyword is used to specify the configuration of the firewall feature in the AutoSecure CLI.

tcp-intercept - And, this (optional) keyword is used to specify the configuration of the TCP-Intercept feature in the AutoSecure CLI.

Below is an example of the command being used:


Router#auto secure

--- AutoSecure Configuration ---

*** AutoSecure configuration enhances the security of the router, but it will not make it absolutely resistant to all security attacks ***

AutoSecure will modify the configuration of your device. All configuration changes will be shown. For a detailed explanation of how the configuration changes enhance security and any possible side effects, please refer to for Autosecure documentation. At any prompt you may enter '?' for help. Use ctrl-c to abort this session at any prompt.

As you can see, once the command is typed into the router, the user (ccna) is informed about the CLI semi-interactive session.

By Charles E Ross